RTU 2021 Syllabus has been released by official authority. RTU is the associated university which has been built in Kota, Rajasthan. It was originated in 2006 through the Government of Rajasthan. The university allies with 130 engineering colleges, 41 MCA colleges, and 95 MBA Colleges.
RTU 2021 Syllabus:
Candidates must check the Syllabus for RTU 2021 from below:
B.Tech (Electrical Engineering):
Junction Diodes: Formation of homogenous and heterojunction diodes and their energy band diagrams, calculation of contact potential and depletion width, V-I characteristics, Small-signal models of the diode, Diode as a circuit element, diode parameters and load line concept, C-V characteristics, and dopant profile. Applications of diodes in the rectifier, clipping, clamping circuits, and voltage multipliers. Transient behavior of PN diode. Breakdown diodes, Schottky diodes, and Zener diode as the voltage regulator. Construction, characteristics and operating principle of UJT.
Semiconductor Physics: Mobility and conductivity, charge densities in a semiconductor, Fermi Dirac distribution, Fermi-Dirac statistics and Boltzmann an approximation to the Fermi-Dirac statistics, carrier concentrations and Fermi levels in Semiconductor. Generation and recombination of charges, diffusion and continuity equation, transport equations, Mass action Law, Hall effect.
Transistors: Characteristics, Current Components, Current Gains: alpha and beta. Variation of transistor parameter with temperature and current level, Operating point, Hybrid model, DC model of the transistor, h-parameter equivalent circuits.CE, CB and CC configuration DC and AC analysis of single-stage CE, CC (Emitter follower) and CB amplifiers AC & DC load line, Ebers-Moll model. Biasing & stabilization techniques. Thermal runaway, Thermal stability.
- Introduction to Computer Architecture and Organization: Von Neuman Architecture, Flynn Classification.
- Register Transfer and Micro-operations: Register transfer language, Arithmetic Micro-operations, Logic Micro-operations, Shift Micro-operations, Bus and memory transfers.
- Computer Organization and Design: Instruction cycle, computer registers, common bus system, computer instructions, addressing modes, design of a basic computer
- Central Processing Unit: General register organization, stack organization, Instruction formats, Data transfer and manipulation, program control. RISC, CISC characteristics.
- Pipeline and Vector processing: Pipeline structure, speedup, efficiency, throughput, and bottlenecks. Arithmetic pipeline and Instruction pipeline.
- Computer Arithmetic: Adder, Ripple carry Adder, carry look Ahead Adder, Multiplication: Add and Shift, Array multiplier and Booth Multiplier, Division: restoring and Non-restoring Techniques.
- Floating-Point Arithmetic: Floating-point representation, Add, Subtract, Multiplication, Division.
- Memory Organization: RAM, ROM, Memory Hierarchy, Organization, Associative memory, Cache memory, and Virtual memory: Paging and Segmentation.
Input-Output Organization: Input-Output Interface, Modes of Transfer, Priority Interrupt, DMA, IOP processor.
- Data Transmission: Terminology, Frequency, spectrum, bandwidth, analog & digital transmission, Transmission impairments, channel capacity, Transmission Media.
- Wireless Transmission: Antenna and antenna gain. Network Reference Models (OSI/ISO and TCP/IP)
- Physical Layer: Line Encoding Schemes. The concept of the bit period, the effect of clock skew, Synchronous, and Asynchronous communication.
- Data Link Layer: Functions of the data link layer and design issues
- Flow Control: Flow control in lossless and lossy channels using stop-and-wait, sliding window protocols. Performance of protocols used for flow control.
- Error Control Coding: Error Detection, Two Dimensional Parity Checks, and Internet Checksum. Polynomial Codes, Standardized polynomial codes, error detecting capability of polynomial codes. Linear codes, the performance of linear codes, error detection & correction using linear systems.
- Data Link Control: HDLC & PPP including frame structures.
- MAC sublayer: Channel Allocation Problem, Pure and slotted Aloha, CSMA, CSMA/CD, collision-free multiple access. Throughput analysis of pure and slotted Aloha. Ethernet Performance.
- Wireless LAN: Hidden node and Exposed node Problems, RTS/CTS based protocol, 802.11 Architecture, a protocol stack, Physical layer, MAC Sublayer.
- Bluetooth Architecture and Protocol Stack Data Link Layer Switching: Bridges (Transparent, Learning and Spanning Tree), Virtual LANs
- Multiplexing: Frequency division, time division (Synchronous and statistical) multiplexing. ADSL, DS1 and DS3 carriers.
- Multiple Accesses: TDMA frame structure, TDMA Burst Structure, TDMA Frame efficiency, TDMA Superframe structure, Frame acquisition, and synchronization, Slip rate in digital terrestrial networks.
- Switching: Qualitative description of Space division, time division, and space-time- space division switching.
- Spread Spectrum Techniques: Direct sequence(DSSS) & frequency hopping(FHSS); Performance consideration in DSSS & FHSS;
- Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA): frequency & channel specifications, forward & reverse CDMA channel, pseudo-noise (PN) sequences, m-sequence, gold sequence, orthogonal code, gold sequences, Walsh codes, synchronization, power control, handoff, the capacity of a CDMA system, IMT-2000, WCDM.
Database Management System:
Introduction to Database System: Overview and History of DBMS. File System v/s DBMS.An advantage of DBMS Describing and Storing Data in a DBMS. Queries in DBMS. Structure of a DBMS.
Entity-Relationship Model: Overview of Data Design Entities, Attributes and Entity Sets, Relationship and Relationship Sets. Features of the ER Model- Key Constraints, Participation Constraints, Weak Entities, Class Hierarchies, Aggregation, Conceptual Data Base, Design with ER Model-Entity v/s Attribute, Entity vs. Relationship Binary vs. Ternary Relationship and Aggregation v/s ternary Relationship Conceptual Design for a Large Enterprise.
Relationship Algebra & Calculus: Relationship Algebra Selection and Projection, Set Operations, Renaming, Joints, Division, Relation Calculus, Expressive Power of Algebra and Calculus.
SQL Queries Programming & Triggers: The Forms of a Basic SQL Query, Union, Intersection and Except, Nested Queries, Correlated Nested Queries, Set-Comparison Operations, Aggregate Operators, Null Values and Embedded SQL, Dynamic SQL, ODBC and JDBC, Triggers and Active Databases.
Schema Refinement & Normal Forms: Introductions to Schema Refinement, Functional Dependencies, Boyce-Codd Normal Forms, Third Normal Form, Normalization-Decomposition into BCNF Decomposition into 3-NF.
- Advanced Trees: Definitions, Operations on Weight-Balanced Trees (Huffman Trees), 2-3 Trees and Red-Black Trees. Dynamic Order Statistics, Interval Tree; Dictionaries.
- Mergeable Heaps: Mergeable Heap Operations, Binomial Trees, Implementing Binomial Heaps and its Operations, 2-3-4. Trees and 2-3-4 Heaps. Amortization analysis and Potential Function of Fibonacci Heap, Implementing Fibonacci Heap.
- Graph Theory Definitions: Definitions of Isomorphic Components. Circuits, Fundamental Circuits, Cut-sets. Cut- Vertices Planer and Dual graphs, Spanning Trees, Kuratovski ’s two Graphs.
- Graph Theory Algorithms: Algorithms for Connectedness, Finding all Spanning Trees in a Weighted Graph, Breadth-First & Depth First Search, Topological Sort, Strongly Connected Components & Articulation Point. Single Min-Cut Max-Flow theorem of Network Flows. Ford-Fulkerson Max-Flow Algorithms.
- Sorting network: Comparison network, zero-one principle, bitonic sorting, and merging network sorter. Priority Queues and Concatenable Queues using 2-3 Trees. Operations on Disjoint sets and its union-find problem, Implementing Sets.
- Number Theoretic Algorithm: Number theoretic notions, Division theorem, GCD, recursion, Modular arithmetic, Solving Modular Linear equation, Chinese Remainder Theorem, the power of an element, Computation of Discrete Logarithms, Primality Testing and Integer Factorization.
Introduction and need of the operating system, layered architecture/ logical structure of the operating system, Type of OS, the operating system as the resource manager and virtual machine, OS services, BIOS, System Calls/Monitor Calls, Firmware- BIOS, Boot Strap Loader.
Process management- Process model, creation, termination, states & transitions, hierarchy, context switching, process implementation, process control block, Basic System calls- Linux & Windows. Threads- processes versus threads, threading, concepts, models, kernel & user-level threads, thread usage, benefits, multithreading models.
Interprocess communication- Introduction to message passing, Race condition, critical section problem, mutual exclusion with busy waiting- disabling interrupts, lock variables, strict alteration, Peterson’s solution, TSL instructions, busy waiting, sleep and wakeup calls, semaphore, monitors, classical IPC problems.
Process scheduling- Basic concepts, classification, CPU and I/O bound, CPU scheduler- short, medium, long-term, dispatcher, scheduling:- preemptive and non-preemptive, Static and Dynamic Priority, Co-operative & Non-cooperative, Criteria/Goals/Performance Metrics, scheduling algorithms- FCFS, SJFS, shortest remaining time, Round robin, Priority scheduling, multilevel queue scheduling, multilevel feedback queue scheduling, Fair share scheduling.
Deadlock- System model, resource types, deadlock problem, deadlock characterization, methods for deadlock handling, deadlock prevention, deadlock avoidance, deadlock detection, recovery from deadlock.
Memory management- concepts, functions, logical and physical address space, address binding, degree of multiprogramming, swapping, static & dynamic loading- creating a load module, loading, static & dynamic linking, shared libraries, memory allocation schemes- first fit, next fit, best fit, worst fit, quick fit. Free space management- bitmap, link list/ free list, buddy ’s system, memory protection and sharing, relocation and address translation.
Virtual Memory- concept, virtual address space, paging scheme, pure segmentation and segmentation with paging scheme hardware support and implementation details, memory fragmentation, demand paging, pre-paging, working set model, page fault frequency, thrashing, page replacement algorithms- optimal, NRU, FIFO, second chance, LRU, LRU- approximation clock, WS clock; Belady’s anomaly, distance string; design issues for paging system- local versus global allocation policies, load control, page size, separate instruction and data spaces, shared pages, cleaning policy, TLB ( translation lookaside buffer) reach, inverted page table, I/O interlock, program structure, page fault handling, Basic idea of MM in Linux & windows.
File System: concepts, naming, attributes, operations, types, structure, file organization & access(Sequential, Direct ,Index Sequential) methods, memory-mapped files, directory structures- one level, two-level, hierarchical/tree, acyclic graph, general graph, file system mounting, file sharing, pathname, directory operations, overview of file system in Linux & windows.
Input/ Output subsystems: concepts, functions/goals, input/ output devices- block and character, spooling, disk structure & operation, disk attachment, disk storage capacity, disk scheduling algorithm- FCFS, SSTF, scan scheduling, C-scan schedule.
Digital Logic Design:
Hardware Description Languages and their use in digital logic design
- VHDL: Modelling Concepts, Lexical Elements & Syntax Descriptions, Scalar Data types & Operations, Sequential Statements, Composite Data Types & Operations, Basic Modelling Constructs.
- Case Study: VHDL Simulation of Ripple Carry, & Look Ahead carry Adders.
- VHDL: Subprograms, Packages & Use Clauses, Aliases, Resolved Signals, Components & Configurations, Generate Statements, Concurrent Statements. Use of VHDL in simulation and synthesis.
- Clocked Sequential circuits. Design steps for synchronous sequential circuits. Design of a sequence detector. Moore and Mealy Machines. Design using JK flip-flops and D flip-flops. State reduction, State assignment, Algorithmic State Charts, converting ASM charts to hardware, one-hot state assignment.
- Considerations of clock skew, set-up time, hold-time and other flip-flop parameters, Time constraints. Programmable Logic Devices. Read-only memory. Boolean function implementation through ROM. PLD, PGA, PLA, PAL, FPGA.
- Event-driven Circuits. The design procedure for asynchronous circuits, stable and unstable states, races, race-free assignments. State reduction of incompletely specified machines. Compatibility and state reduction procedure. Hazards in combinational networks. Dynamic risks, Function Hazards, and Essential Hazards. Eliminating hazards.
- Field Programmable Gate Arrays: Introduction, Logic Elements & programmability, Interconnect structures & programmability, Extended Logic Elements, SRAM, Flash Memory & Antifuse Configuration, Case Studies of Altera Stratix & Xilinx Virtex-II pro.
- Technology Mapping for FPGAs: Logic Synthesis, Lookup Table Technology Mapping.
Digital Signal Processing:
- Introduction: Discrete-time signals and systems, properties of discrete-time systems, Linear time-invariant systems – discrete time. Properties of LTI systems and their block diagrams. Convolution, Discrete-time systems described by difference equations.
- Fourier Transform: Discrete-time Fourier transform for periodic and aperiodic signals. Properties of DTFT.
- Z-transform: The region of convergence for the Z- transform. The Inverse Z-transform. Properties of Z transform.
- Sampling: Mathematical theory of sampling. Sampling theorem. Ideal & Practical sampling. Interpolation technique for the reconstruction of a signal from its samples. Aliasing. Sampling in freq. Domain. The sampling of discrete-time signals.
- Discrete Fourier Transforms: Properties of the DFT, Linear Convolution using DFT.
- Efficient computation of the DFT: Decimation – in-Time and Decimation-in frequency FFT Algorithms.
- Filter Design Techniques: Structures for discrete-time systems- Block diagram and signal flow graph representation of LCCD (LCCD – Linear Constant Coefficient Difference) equations, Basic structures for IIR and FIR systems, Transposed forms.
- Introduction to filter Design: Butterworth & Chebyshev. IIR filter design by impulse invariance & Bilinear transformation.
- Design of FIR filters by Windowing: Rectangular, Hamming & Kaiser.
Information Theory And Coding:
Introduction to information theory: Uncertainty, Information, and Entropy, Information measures for continuous random variables, source coding theorem. Discrete Memory fewer channels, Mutual information, Conditional entropy.
Source coding schemes for data compaction: Prefix code, Huffman code, Shanon-Fane code & Hempel-Ziv coding channel capacity. Channel coding theorem. Shannon limit.
Linear Block Code: Introduction to error connecting codes, coding & decoding of linear block code, Minimum distance consideration, Conversion of the nonsystematic form of matrices into systematic form.
Cyclic Code: Code Algebra, Basic properties of Galois fields (GF) polynomial operations over Galois fields, generating cyclic code by generating polynomial, parity check polynomial. Encoder & decoder for cyclic codes.
- Convolutional Code: Convolutional encoders of different rates. Code Tree, Trellis, & state diagram.
- Maximum likelihood decoding of convolutional code: The Viterbi Algorithm fee distance of a convolutional code.